JMP Task Force on Water Quality Monitoring
How can the safety of drinking water be monitored globally? What definitions would be meaningful and assist decision-makers in the process of improving the drinking water situation in the world? What research and development efforts are needed to come up with a rapid, reliable and cost-effective way of measuring water quality indicators locally and reporting on them at the global level? To address these questions, the JMP commissioned a Task Force on Water Quality Monitoring which met in 2010 and 2013.
Water quality testing in multi-topic surveys
Since the decision in 2000 to adopt a method based on nationally representative household surveys, the JMP has explored options to report on the quality of drinking water supplies.
The JMP has been collaborating with various large scale household surveys programmes and has developed a standardised module for direct testing of drinking water quality in close collaboration with the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) programme. To date over thirty countries have integrated water quality testing in household surveys, a cost-effective way to collect representative data on water quality. Tools that are part of the MICS support package include the Water Quality Testing Questionnaire and Manual for Water Quality Testing. The module has been adapted for use in the Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) in Ethiopia and preparations are underway for surveys in several other countries.
The following survey results are currently available:
- Afghanistan ALCS 2016-2016 (pilot in 10 provinces)
- Bangladesh MICS 2009, MICS 2013 (Thematic water quality report)
- Congo MICS 2014-15
- Côte d'Ivoire MICS 2016
- Democratic People's Republic of Korea MICS 2017
- Ecuador ENEMDU 2016
- Ethiopia ESS 2016
- Ghana GLSS 2012-2013
- Iraq MICS 2018
- Laos People's Democratic Republic LSIS 2017
- Lebanon National Water Quality Survey 2016
- Mongolia Khuvsgul Province MICS 2016, Nalaikh Province MICS 2016
- Nepal MICS 2013
- Nigeria MICS 2016-17
- Pakistan Punjab MICS 2017-2018
- Pakistan Sindh MICS 2014
- Paraguay MICS 2016
- Sierra Leone MICS 2017
- Tunisia MICS 2018
Dedicated water quality surveys
Between 2002 and 2008 the rapid assessment of drinking water quality (RADWQ) project was implemented in a number of pilot countries where the quality of drinking water from improved sources was evaluated. The RADWQ studies provided important evidence for informing the future SDG targets and indicators.
RADWQ pilot country reports:
Aside from the cost associated with dedicated teams to conduct the survey, one of the key challenges with that RADWQ approach was that in many countries there is no complete sampling frame for water supplies, making it challenging to draw a robust representative sample. In June 2012, the JMP convened an expert meeting to review sampling issues and review the RADWQ Method Handbook.