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Data sources

Nationally representative household surveys and administrative data are used to estimate progress on water, sanitation and hygiene

For the 2017 progress update the JMP household water, sanitation and hygiene database included nearly 5000 sources. Data sources were identified and validated through an extensive country consultation process, with inputs received from over 100 countries.

Data are drawn from a variety of national data sources including:

  • Nationally representative household surveys
  • Population and housing censuses
  • Administrative data (such as regulatory agencies)
  • Service provider data

The JMP closely collaborates with major international survey programmes including the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Living Standard Measurement Study (LSMS). This has included the development of a list of core questions for use in household surveys as well as new modules on drinking water quality and menstrual hygiene management.

Through the United Nations Statistics Division and WHO and UNICEF country offices, the JMP also provides guidance on the questions used in population and housing censuses.

National monitoring systems will be key to establishing increasingly robust monitoring of safely managed services during the SDGs. The JMP has begun to establish stronger links with regulators and networks of regulators such as the International Network of Drinking-water Regulators, ADERASA and ESAWAS, and to identify ways to support enhanced data collection.

The JMP has also been exploring the extent to which service provider data can be used for global monitoring of service levels and tariffs.