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Data sources

Nationally representative surveys and administrative data are used to estimate progress on household water, sanitation and hygiene

The 2021 JMP update drew on a total of 6,743 data sources, 4,426 of which were used to produce estimates. Similar numbers of datasets were used for drinking water services (n=3,283) and sanitation services (n=3,243), but there were comparatively few datasets with information on hygiene (n=208) and menstrual health (n=46). Data sources were identified and validated through an extensive country consultation process, with inputs received from over 100 countries.

National data sources used for JMP 2021 household update
National data sources used for the JMP 2021 progress update on WASH in households

Data are drawn from a variety of national data sources including:

  • Nationally representative household surveys
  • Population and housing censuses
  • Administrative data (such as regulatory agencies)
  • Service provider data

The JMP closely collaborates with major international survey programmes including the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Living Standard Measurement Study (LSMS). This has included the development of a list of core questions for use in household surveys as well as new modules on drinking water quality and menstrual health.

Through the United Nations Statistics Division and WHO and UNICEF country offices, the JMP also provides guidance on the questions used in population and housing censuses.

The JMP also works with regulators and networks of regulators such as the International Network of Drinking-water Regulators, ADERASA and ESAWAS, and to identify ways to support enhanced data collection.